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Most of the time, you won't do your research on the whole data. You are picking a part called a sample, and you will work on it. You will have the data used to

  • learn the model (=learning sample, most likely something like 75%-80% of your data)
  • validate the model (=validation sample, the 25%-20% remaining)

Warning: you would randomly pick the elements of your sample (independent and identically distributed "i.i.d"). In R, you must use the sample function.