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Everyone knows about getElementById, getElementsByClassName, and maybe getElementsByTagName too. These are shortcuts of querySelector that is working like the operator $ in JQuery. I listed every function you may use too.

Get elements (common way)

// get the element having id="id"
let div = document.getElementById('id');
// get the elements having a_class in class="a_class ....".
let divs = document.getElementsByClassName('a_class');
// get all links (a tags)
let tab_links = document.getElementsByTagName('a');

Get elements using selectors

You can also use selectors (like in CSS or in JQuery)

// getElementsByClassName('a_class')
// document.getElementById('id');
// document.getElementsByTagName('a')

// and you can do things like in CSS
// for instance 
// (check the section about selectors in the CSS course)
document.querySelector("div .container + p")

Using elements

Once you got an element (either by iterating an array or using a selector returning an element), you can call the properties like this

  • e.href (tag a), e.src (tag img), ...
  • you can add new ones (if you want)
  • you can check if an element got a property
if (e.hasOwnProperty('href')) {
    e.href // not undefined
// or
// either null or a value
let href = e.hasOwnProperty('href')
  • add or remove classes
  • change the style (please use classes and not inline style, unless you are practicing)
e.style.width = "5px";
e.style.display = "none";
e.style.color = "red";
e.style.backgroundColor = "yellow";
// ...
  • change the tag content
e.innerHTML = "<b>test</b>"; // "test" (in bold)
e.innerText = "<b>test</b>"; // "<b>test</b>" (plain text)

Other functions

  • document.createElement('p'): create a tag (ex: p)
  • document.createTextNode('texte'): same as "text"
  • e.children: all nested tags (a.k.a. children nodes 🙄)
  • e.parentNode: ancestor node (a.k.a. parent node 🙄)
  • e.getAttribute(...): get an attribute value (like href, ...)
  • e.setAttribute(...): set an attribute value (like href, ...)
  • e.appendChild(...): add a child to e