CPP Course

C++ (cplusplus)

The C++ (cplusplus) appeared around 1985, inspired from ADA, CLU, it's an extension of the C language (as the name implies 😂). It inspired many languages such as C#, Java, Lua, PHP, and Python. It's a low-level language, fast and platform-independent, that have object-oriented features such as constructors, inheritance, methods, objects, polymorphism, and overloading.

It may look complex at one glance, but if you are friendly with C, then C++ is quite easy to learn, at least from my point of view.

The current standard of C++ is C++20, while C++23 is coming. The previous major versions are C++98, C++11, and C++17.


C++ is an extension of the C language. Everything that you could do in C, is still working in C++, but you got a whole new bunch of features.

.cpp 👍 or .cc
.hpp 👍 or .h

You will write your code, meaning the implementation of what you declared in your headers.

// main.cpp
#include "main.hpp"

int main()
	// ...

You will write declarations, meaning the signatures of things (functions, classes, structures, ...). You may write some code too. It seems to be a good idea to use .hpp instead of .h, to differentiate C++ headers with C headers.

// main.hpp
#ifndef MAIN_HPP
#define MAIN_HPP

// ...

#endif //MAIN_HPP

To compile your files, you may use g++ to compile your files, which is working like gcc in C.

What's new in C++

  • Comments with // (added in C99+ later)
  • Cast with type(value) (ex: int(5.0))
  • Type bool
  • for(int i = ...; ... ; ...) (added in C99+ later)
  • references
  • overloading methods
  • namespaces
  • improved structures, classes


A reference is a sort of pointer to a variable. You can modify the reference, which will modify the reference variable, but deleting a reference (ex: ref = null) won't destroy the referenced variable. References are better than pointer because their size is constant (either 32 or 64 bits), so you can save memory 🚀.

float my_float = 5.0f;
float& ref_my_float = my_float;
ref_my_float = 6.0;
// both are 6.0

If needed, you can declare constant reference, which means you do not need another variable that you will reference

const float& ref_my_float = 5.0f;

A reference can be converted to const, and both can be dereferenced.

int x = 5;
int& y = x; // value to reference
const int& z = y; // ref to const ref
int a = y; // ref to int
int b = z; // const ref to int
y++; // x=y=6 and a=b=5


A function is a block of code.

Default values

We can give default values to parameters. If a parameter got a default value, then every following parameter must have a default value

void abc(int a, int b=1, float c=2.0f) { /* ... */ }

Default values are only given in the declaration (header), and not in the implementation (source).
This is do not take into account functions that are not in a header.


We can overload (surcharger) a function, meaning that we can write functions with the same name but ...

  • Taking into account that
    • The return type does not matter
    • The names of the arguments do no matters
  • You can create functions with the same name
    • with more/fewer arguments
    • with arguments having different types
    • const or not const (see structures and classes)
void f(int a, int b) { /* ... */ }
void f(int a, int b, int c) { /* ... */ }
void f(int a, float b) { /* ... */ }
// f(int,int,int) is included in this one
// => "problem" (declaration ok, but we can't call f with with 3 integers)
void f(int a, int b, int c, int d = 0) { /* ... */ }

Just for the "syntax", but this is the same as for any other type.

void f(int& f) {}
void f(const int& f) {}
int& f(int& f) {}
const int& f(int& f) {}
const int& f(const int& f) {}


Namespaces (espaces de noms) are a great way of sorting functions, types, global variables, ... We are usually declaring functions, ... in our header file, inside a namespace. This is allowing us, for instance, to have functions/classes/structures/... with the same name/signature, but because they got a different namespace, then there is no problem.

namespace algebra {
	// declare functions, types, global variables, classes, structures
	float truncate = 6;
	// or even nested (`espaces de noms imbriqués`) namespaces
	namespace complex_numbers { float truncate = 6; }

You will use the scope operator :: (opérateur de résolution de portée)

float v1 = algebra::truncate;
float v2 = algebra::complex_numbers::truncate;
// import one ✨
using algebra::truncate;
// import the whole namespace 🚀
using namespace algebra;


Exceptions are signals that are sent when something unexpected happened. It could be when an error such as 1/0, or it could be when you want to stop a function (mainly used by functional programmers).

In C, we were usually, either using the return type (returning -1 if an int), or using global variables in which an error code was stored.

  • raise an exception
throw "test"; // working but poor pratice (clang rule 15.1)
throw std::runtime_error("some message");
throw std::exception();
throw custom_exception(); // see inheritance, with std::exception
  • catch an exception: the signal is propagated upwards until someone catches it (if none, the program is stopped and the error is shown to the user).
try {
	// some code
	throw std::runtime_error("some message");
	// some code if the exception isn't thrown
} catch ( std::runtime_error &runtime_error ) {
	const char* msg = runtime_error.what();
	// ... print? ...

You can use a fallback catch catch(...) {} to catch any exceptions that were not caught in one of the previous catches.

try {}
catch (type& n) {} catch (type2& n2) {}
catch(...) {} // fallback

Structures and Classes

Now, we can declare both fields (attributes) and functions (methods) in a structure. When we are creating a new instance, we are creating what we call an object or instance.

struct my_structure {
    int attribute;
    void my_method() {};
    void my_method2() {};

my_structure object;
object.attribute = 5;

A class is a structure, but its members are private by default. Simply replace struct with class. There is no other difference, so you may use whichever you want. I will follow what some folks are doing. If my structure is complex, then I will use a class, otherwise if it's like a record in Java, something with some methods, but mainly used to store data, then I will use a structure. Structures are mainly here for backward compatibility with C after all.